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Veterinary Guidelines for Anesthetics and Analgesics

Veterinary Guidelines for Anesthetics and Analgesics

These guidelines provided information about methods of administration and dosage for anesthetics and analgesics. For questions or further assistance, contact the DAR veterinary technicians. Research staff should also review the IACUC policy on the use of sedatives, analgesics, and anesthetics.

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Mice:

Anesthesia, injectable:

  • Ketamine 50-100 mg/kg + xylazine 5-15 mg/kg IP, SQ
  • Ketamine 100 mg/kg + xylazine 10 mg/kg + atropine 0.04 – 0.25 mg/kg IP, SQ
  • Ketamine 100 mg/kg + xylazine 2.5 mg/kg + acepromazine 2.5 mg/kg IM
  • Ketamine 100 mg/kg + diazepam 5 mg/kg IP
  • Sodium Pentobarbital 30-90 mg/kg IP

Anesthesia, gas:

  • Isoflurane 0-5% (MAC 1.3%)

Local anesthetics:

  • 1-2% Lidocaine 2-4 mg/kg local infiltration; onset 5-10 min; duration 1-2 hr
  • 0.25-0.5% Bupivacaine 1-2 mg/kg local infiltration; onset 15-30 min; duration 4-6 hr

Analgesia:

  • Opioids:
    • Buprenorphine 0.01-0.1 mg/kg SQ q 6-12 hr
  • NSAIDs:
    • Carprofen 5-10 mg/kg SQ q 24 hr
    • Meloxicam 5 mg/kg SQ q 24hr
    • Flunixin 1.0-2.5 mg/kg SQ, IP
    • Ketoprofen 5 mg/kg SQ

Rats:

Anesthesia, injectable:

  • Xylazine 5-12 mg/kg + ketamine 40-80 mg/kg IP, IM
  • Xylazine 8 mg/kg + acepromazine 4 mg/kg + ketamine 40 mg/kg IM
  • Xylazine 5-10 mg/kg + atropine 0.005-0.02 mg/kg + ketamine 75-100 mg/kg IP
  • Ketamine 40-60 mg/kg + diazepam 5-10 mg/kg IP
  • Sodium Pentobarbital 40-50 mg/kg IP

Anesthesia, gas:

  • Isoflurane 0-5% (MAC ~ 1.3%)

Local anesthetics:

  • 1-2% Lidocaine 2-4 mg/kg local infiltration; onset 5-10 min; duration 1-2 hr
  • 0.25-0.5% Bupivacaine 1-2 mg/kg local infiltration; onset 15-30 min; duration 4-6 hr

Analgesics:

  • Opioids:
    • Buprenorphine 0.01-0.05 mg/kg IP, SQ q 6-12 hr
  • NSAIDs:
    • Carprofen 5 mg/kg SQ q 24 hr
    • Meloxicam 1-2 mg/kg SQ q 24 hr
    • Flunixin 2.5 mg/kg SQ q 12 hr

Rabbits:

Anticholinergics:

  • Glycopyrrolate, 0.1 mg/kg; IM, SQ;

Sedation:

  • Acepromazine 0.5 mg/kg + butorphanol 1 mg/kg SQ, IM
  • Midazolam 1-2 mg/kg IM
  • Diazepam 1-2 mg/kg IM
  • Xylazine 2.5 mg/kg IM

Induction:

  • Acepromazine 1-5 mg/kg + ketamine 50-75 mg/kg IM
  • Xylazine 5-10 mg/kg + ketamine 35-50 mg/kg IM, SQ
  • Xylazine 5 mg/kg + ketamine 35 mg/kg + buprenorphine 0.03 mg/kg IM
  • Telazol 30-60 mg/kg IM
  • Fentanyl 0.04-0.2 mg/kg + Droperidol 2-10 mg/kg IM
  • Sodium Pentobarbital 20-60 mg/kg IV (apnea is common)
  • Propofol 7-15 mg/kg IV; CRI 0.6 mg/kg/min

Maintenance:

  • Isoflurane 0-5% (MAC 2%)

Analgesics:

  • Opioids
    • Buprenorphine 0.01-0.05 mg/kg SQ, IV q 6-12 hr
    • Morphine 2-5 mg/kg SQ, IM q 4 hr
    • Butorphanol 0.1-0.5 mg/kg SQ, IV q 4 hr
  • NSAIDs
    • Carprofen 4-5 mg/kg SQ, PO q 24 hr; 1.5 mg/kg PO q 24 hr
    • Meloxicam 0.2-0.6 mg/kg SQ, PO q 24 hr
    • Flunixin 1-2 mg/kg IM q 12-24 hr
  • Acetaminophen 1 ml drug/100 drinking water

Guinea Pigs:

Anesthesia, injectable:

  • Ketamine 40-80 mg/kg + xylazine 5-10 mg/kg IP
  • Sodium pentobarbitol 35-45 mg/kg IP
  • Telazol 60 mg/kg + xylazine 5 mg/kg + butorphanol 0.1 mg/kg IM

Anesthesia, gas:

  • Isoflurane 0-5%

Analgesia:

  • Buprenorphine 0.05 mg/kg SQ q 6-12 hr
  • Carprofen 2.5 mg/kg SQ q 24 hr
  • Flunixin 2.5-5.0 mg/kg IM q 12-24 hr

Chinchillas

Anesthesia, injectable:

  • Ketamine 40 mg/kg + xylazine 2 mg/kg IM
  • Sodium Pentobarbitol 35-40 mg/kg IP

Anesthesia, gas:

  • Isoflurane 0-5%

Analgesia:

  • Buprenorphine 0.05 mg/kg SQ q 6-12 hr
  • Flunixin 1-3 mg/kg SQ q 12 hr

Dogs:

Premedication:

  • Acepromazine 0.05 mg/kg (3 mg max) + hydrophorphone 0.1 mg/kg +/- atropine 0.04 mg/kg IM, SC
  • Acepromazine 0.05 mg/kg + morphine 0.5 mg/kg +/- glycopyrrolate 0.01 mg/kg IM, SC
  • Dexmedetomidine 2-5 ug/kg + hydromorphone 0.1 mg/kg +/- atropine 0.04 mg/kg IM, SC
  • Xylazine 0.2-1 mg/kg + hydromorphone 0.1 mg/kg +/- atropine 0.04 mg/kg IM, SC

Induction:

  • Ketamine 5-10 mg/kg + diazepam 0.5 mg/kg IV
  • Propofol 3-6 mg/kg IV (pre-oxygenation 5 min)
  • Fentanyl 5-20 ug/kg + diazepam 0.5 mg/kg IV
  • Telazol 2-4 mg/kg IV

Maintenance:

  • Isoflurane 0-5% (MAC 1.3%)

Analgesics:

  • Morphine 0.3-0.5 mg/kg IM, SQ, IV q 4-6 hr
  • Buprenorphine 0.005-0.02 mg/kg IM, SQ, IV q 6-12 hr
  • Butorphanol 0.1-0.4 mg/kg IM, SQ, IV q 2-4 hr
  • Meperidine 3-5 mg/kg SQ q 2-4 hr
  • Hydromorphone 0.05-0.2 mg/kg IM, SQ q 6 hr
  • Fentanyl 2-10 ug/kg bolus q 30 min; CRI 3-10 ug/kg/hr; fentanyl patch
  • Naloxone (opioid antagonist) 0.002-0.02 mg/kg IV
  • Lidocaine infiltration 2-4 mg/kg (lasts 2-4 hr); bolus 1-4 mg/kg IV; CRI 30-50 ug/kg/min
  • Bupivacaine infiltration 1-2 mg/kg (lasts 4-6 hr)
  • Ketamine 0.5-2 mg/kg bolus; 0.2-2 mg/kg/hr
  • NSAIDs
    • Carprofen 2-4 mg/kg SC, IM, IV q 12-24 hr
    • Meloxicam 0.1-0.2 mg/kg IV, SC q 24 hr
    • Ketoprofen 2 mg/kg IV, SC, IM q 24 hr

Cats:

Premedication:

  • Ketamine 10 mg/kg + midazolam 0.2 mg/kg IM
  • Ketamine 5 mg/kg + xylazine 0.2 mg/kg IM
  • Ketamine 5 mg/kg + butorphanol 0.2 mg/kg + acepromazine 0.05 mg/kg IM
  • Sodium pentobarbital 25 mg/kg IV

Induction:

  • Ketamine 5-10 mg/kg + diazepam 0.5 mg/kg IV
  • Propofol 3-6 mg/kg IV (pre-oxygenation 5 min)
  • Telazol 2-4 mg/kg IV

Maintenance:

  • Isoflurane 0-5% (MAC 1.6%)

Analgesia:

  • Morphine 0.1 mg/kg SQ q 4-6 hr
  • Buprenorphine 0.005-0.02 mg/kg IM, SQ, IV q 6-8 hr
  • Butorphanol 0.1-0.4 mg/kg IM, SQ, IV q 2-4 hr
  • Hydromorphone 0.05-0.1 mg/kg IM, SC q 6 hr
  • Fentanyl 2-10 ug/kg bolus q 30 min; CRI 3-10 ug/kg/hr; fentanyl patch
  • Lidocaine infiltration 2-4 mg/kg (lasts 2-4 hr); bolus 1-4 mg/kg IV; CRI 30-50 ug/kg/min
  • Bupivacaine infiltration 1-2 mg/kg (lasts 4-6 hr)
  • Ketamine 0.5-2 mg/kg bolus; 0.2-2 mg/kg/hr
  • NSAIDs
    • Meloxicam 0.1-0.2 mg/kg IV, SQ q 24 hr
    • Ketoprofen 2 mg/kg IV, SQ, IM q 24 hr
    • Robenacoxib 1mg/kg, PO q 24 hr

Pigs:

Preanesthetic Drugs:

  • Acepromazine 0.1- 0.4 mg/kg IM
  • Xylazine 1-2 mg/kg IM
  • Diazepam 0.5-1 mg/kg IV; 4-8 mg/kg IM
  • Azaperone 0.2-2.5 mg/kg IM

Induction Drugs/Combinations:

  • Ketamine 20 mg/kg IM
  • Xylazine 2.2 mg/kg + telazol 4.4 mg/kg IM
  • Telazol 2-8 mg/kg IM
  • Xylazine 2.2 mg/kg + ketamine 2 mg/kg + oxymorphone 0.07 mg/kg IM
  • TKX 1 ml/ 50-75 kg; telazol powder + 250 mg ketamine (100 mg/ml) + 250 mg Xylazine (100 mg/ml)
  • Propofol 6-8 mg/kg IV (to effect); CRI 4-10 mg/kg/hr

Maintenance:

  • Isoflurane 0-5% (MAC 1.5%)

Analgesics:

  • Opioids
    • Buprenorphine 0.005-0.01 mg/kg IM q 8-12 hr
    • Oxymorphone 0.15 mg/kg IM q 4-6 hr
    • Butorphanol 0.1-0.3 mg/kg IM q 4-6 hr
  • NSAIDs
    • Carprofen 2 mg/kg IM q 24 hr
    • Ketoprofen 1-3 mg/kg IM q 12 hr
    • Flunixin 1-4 mg/kg IM q 12-24 hr

Anticholinergics:

  • Atropine 0.05 mg/kg IM; 0.02 mg/kg IV

Sheep:

Sedation:

  • Acepromazine 0.03-0.5 mg/kg IV (increase risk of regurgitation)
  • Xylazine 0.05-0.2 mg/kg IV; 0.2-0.3 mg/kg IM + butorphanol 0.1-0.5 mg/kg IV
  • Xylazine 0.2-0.3 mg/kg IM + butorphanol 0.1-0.5 mg/kg IV, IM
  • Romifidine 0.05 mg/kg IV, IM

Induction:

  • Propopol 3-5 mg/kg IV (to effect)
  • Pentobarbital 20-25 mg/kg IV (to effect)
  • Ketamine 4 mg/kg + diazepam 0.4 mg/kg IV (to effect)
  • Telazol 4 mg/kg IV (to effect)

Maintenance:

  • Isoflurane 0-5% (MAC 1.15%)

Analgesia:

  • Opioids
    • Buprenorphine 0.005-0.01 mg/kg IM, IV q 4 hr
    • Butorphanol 0.05-0.2 mg/kg IM q 6 hr
    • Morphine 0.5 mg/kg IM q 6 hr
    • Fentanyl 0.01 mg/kg IV q 2 hr; fentanyl patch
  • NSAIDs
    • Flunixin 1.1-2.2 mg/kg SQ, IM, IV q 12 hr
    • Phenylbutazone 2.2 mg/kg PO, IV, SQ q 24 hr
    • Carprofen 0.7 mg/kg IV; 2-4 mg/kg SQ, IM q 24 hr
    • Ketoprofen 1-2 mg/kg SQ, IM, IV q 24 hr

Antagonists:

  • Yohimbine (a-2 antagonist) 0.1-0.2 mg/kg IV
  • Naloxone (opioid antagonist) 0.2 mg/kg IV (to effect)

Amphibians:

Immersion Anesthetics:

The desired concentration will depend on the desired depth of anesthesia

  • Tricaine methane sulfonate (MS 222):
    • Larvae: 0.2 g/L
    • Adults: 1-2 g/L
    • Add sodium bicarbonate 1-3 g/L (to adjust pH to 7.0-7.4)
    • Gloves should be worn while handling
    • Perform in a fume hood or wear goggles and mask
  • Benzocaine:
    • Larvae: 50 mg/L
    • Adults: 200-300 mg/L
    • Add sodium bicarbonate 1-3 g/L (to adjust pH to 7.0-7.4)
    • Gloves should be worn while handling
    • Perform in a fume hood or wear goggles and mask

Tips: level of anesthesia

  • Light plane: loss of righting reflex
  • Deep plane: loss of deep pain reflex
  • Once an anesthetic plane is achieved, transfer the animal to fresh tank of water
  • If the animal begins to recover before the completion, place the animal into 50% dilution of the induction solution

Fish:

Induction/maintenance:

  • Tricaine methane sulfonate (MS 222):
    • 75-200 mg/L dissolved in water (buffered with sodium bicarbonate 1:1 – 1:1.2)
    • Induction: 100-200 mg/L
    • Maintenance: 50-150 mg/L
    • Sedation: 15-50 mg/L
    • For salt water, measuring pH before adding bicarbonate
    • Gloves should be worn
    • Perform in fume hood or use goggles and masks

Analgesia:

  • Butorphanol 0.1-0.4 mg/kg IM
  • Carprofen 2-4 mg/kg IM

References:

Fish, R.E., Brown, M.J., Danneman, P.J. and Karas, A.Z. (2008) Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals (2nd ed) Elsevier, San Diego, CA, U.S.A.

Flecknell, P. (2009) Laboratory Animal Anesthesia (3rd ed) Elsevier, San Diego, CA, U.S.A.

Plumb, D.C. (2011) Plumb’s Veterinary Drug Handbook (9th ed) Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken, NJ, U.S.A.

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